Classical Big Data Reading – Google File System

This time I’ll discuss “The Google File System (GFS) by Sanjay Ghemawat, Howard Gobioff, and Shun-Tak Leung from 2003. While GFS is propriety to Google, it was the direct inspiration for the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS), which is the fundamental layer of the popular Hadoop ecosystem.

In a nutshell, what GFS does is it takes a cluster of commodity servers with local disks and builds a fault-tolerant distributed file system on to top of it. The main innovation was picking up a new set of assumptions and optimizing the file system around a specific use case from Google:

  • The cluster is designed for low-end, low-cost nodes with local disks. Specifically, failure of disks and servers is handled automatically and transparently as they are expected to be a common, normal happening,not some rarely tested corner case.
  • The file system does not aim to be general-purpose. It is optimized for large, sequential I/O for both read and writes (high bandwidth, not low latency).
    In addition, GFS aims to hold relatively few (millions) files, mostly large ones (multi-GBs).

The architecture of GFS will look very familiar if you know HDFS. In GFS, there is a single master server (similar to HDFS Name Node) and  one chunkserver per server (similar to HDFS Data Node). The files are broken down to large, fixed-size chunks of 64MB (similar to HDFS blocks), which are stored as local linux files and are replicated for HA (three replicas by default). The master maintains all the metadata of the files and chunks in-memory. Clients get metadata from the master, but their read/write communications go directly to the chunkservers.The master logs metadata changes persistently to a local and remote operation log (similar to HDFS EditLog), but chunk location metadata is not persisted it is gathered from the chunkservers during master startup etc etc.

GFS Architecture

Cool features – surprisingly, GFS had in 2003 some features that are yet to appear in HDFS. Continue reading

Classical Big Data Reading – CAP Theorem

I decided to try writing once in a while a post on some of the classical papers and topics that had major effect on our big data technologies, and there is no better place to start that than the CAP Theorem.

The CAP Theorem by Eric Brewer was a philosophical fuel behind the so-called NoSQL movement, the battle cry that for a while united them all (at least in 2010). CAP stands for Consistency, Availability, (network) Partition tolerance and the theorem claims that in a distributed system, when there is an inevitable network partition (and the cluster breaks into two or more “islands”), you can’t guarantee both availability (for updates) and consistency. However, it was sometimes dumbed down to to a “Consistency, Availablity, Partition Tolerance – pick any two” slogan to explain why an eventual consistency model for a NoSQL database is legit. The discussion usually classified relational databases as “CA” and typically NoSQL databases as “AP”. Here is one example, and another representative one as an image:

Taken from Continue reading